—–. 1989. The fresh new Syntax and you will Semantics regarding Verb Morphology inside Modern Aramaic: A good Jewish Dialect out of Iraqi Kurdistan. Western Oriental Show, 69. The fresh new Refuge: Western Oriental Area.
Meehan, Charles, and Jacqueline Alon. 1979. The fresh Child Whose Tunic Caught to Him: A good Folktale from the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect away from Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel China Education 9:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Facts and you will Records into the a routine regarding Lamentations for the Ninth from Abdominal about Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The book out-of Exodus for the Neo-Aramaic regarding the Dialect of your own Jewish People out-of Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Drive.
These half dozen Video-Gamer Dating-Seite binyanim out-of Syriac was indeed low in NENA to several first groups, that have a third closely allied on the next
Thomason, Sarah Gray, and you may Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Code Get in touch with, Creolization, and you may Hereditary Linguistics. Berkeley and you will La: Univ. away from California Force.
The original group descends from new peal, the second class about pael, and third, whoever vocalism pursue that another, hails from the latest afel
Several other grounds complicating the trouble ‘s the differential impacts of various co-territorial languages. The newest dialect distinctions within Kurdish are big, and to their perception can be tracked some of the variation among NENA languages. Including, the latest Jewish Neo-Aramaic out-of Halabja, including the Kurdish of the city, does not distinguish a gift and you will upcoming stressful, but in which Kurdish maintains for example a distinction, therefore do Neo-Aramaic. Inside Azerbaijan, Turkish features exerted strong effect on the latest Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), and also the languages of the ordinary regarding Mosul reveal a robust dictate out-of Arabic perhaps not viewed in other places.
Tkhuma (Tx): The words out-of descendants away from emigrants in one of one’s partial-separate ashirets from southeast Poultry, now resident along the Khabur Valley inside the Syria. Information is out-of Jacobi (1973) and you can my cards.
(5) Syriac had around three very first verbal stems, this new peal, the brand new pael, and afel. To those was extra about three inactive stems, molded regarding the first of those by the prefixation of e[Theta]-: the fresh e[Theta]pael, the brand new age[Theta]paal, while the ettafal. This situation exists throughout NENA. In the most common NENA languages, verbs will stay in the verb groups in which they were found in earlier levels of the language. That is, the fresh descendant regarding good Syriac peal verb is an effective NENA Class We verb, and you can a Syriac pael verb would-be a NENA Group II verb: such as for instance, Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ away from before peal, and you may sadure ‘send’ regarding before pael. not, inside Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and maybe Koy Sanjaq, the course membership has been reorganized and that is predictable with the basis of the shape of the new base in the place of the historic supply. Such, within the Azerbaijani the fresh C stem has the function CaCoC- getting sound verbs, whatever the resource, and you will CCaC- getting middle-weakened verbs: garosen ‘I in the morning pulling’, but kwasan ‘I (f.) in the morning descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Other really significant creativity within the NENA is the third individual copula having l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This form may obtain (Noldeke 1868, 203) out of we[Theta] leh ‘he has’, but zero copula want it is positioned additional NENA. The initial and you will next person do not have a keen l, except during the Jewish Azerbaijani, where the l might have been generalized through the paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin i:victory ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is situated through the NENA except in the Halabja, which has -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it is the day of mercy’. None Turoyo nor Mandaic enjoys versions parallel so you’re able to ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he are here’, harke-zero ‘I are here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he are charming’, basim-na ‘I am charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The old Aramaic word to own ‘son’, bra in BT, could have been stretched throughout NENA but Hertevin by the introduction of diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, individual correspondence), Zakho brona (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 177). Although not, both Turoyo and you may Mandaic provides an epenthetic vowel, however, zero suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and you can Mandaic eber or ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) In many cases, Hertevin aligns which have Turoyo, contrary to the rest of NENA. They does not have an effective CCaCa introduce stressful (6), doesn’t have sodir preterite (12), doesn’t have preposition ta (15), and you can spends ruh to make reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. New Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect from Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Investigation and you will Folkloristic Texts. Janua Linguarum, collection practica 3. This new Hague: Mouton.